Diesel is the world's transportation primary fuel workhorse. It is the principal commercial transportation fuel used in on-highway commercial transportation (freight trucks and buses) and off-highway heavy-duty applications (mining, inland marine, ocean vessels, railroad and agricultural machines. Many industrial facilities, large buildings, institutional facilities, hospitals, and electric utilities also have diesel generators for backup and emergency electric power supply.
In 2010, diesel fuels represented 17.6 million barrels per day. On-highway diesel is by far the predominant product, representing 78% of the diesel portion.
On average, U.S. refineries produce about 19 gallons of gasoline, 12 gallons of diesel fuel, and 4 gallons of jet fuel from a 42 gallon barrel of crude oil.
EIA estimates that global consumption of petroleum and other liquid fuels grew by 1.3 million b/d in 2015, averaging 93.7 million b/d. EIA expects global consumption of petroleum and other liquid fuels to grow by 1.2 million b/d in 2016 and by 1.3 million b/d in 2017.
Petroleum-derived diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n, iso, and cycloparaffins), and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes). The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H23, ranging approximately from C10H20 to C15H28.
The principal measure of diesel fuel quality is its cetane number. A cetane number is a measure of the delay of ignition of a diesel fuel. A higher cetane number indicates that the fuel ignites more readily when sprayed into hot compressed air. European (EN 590 standard) road diesel has a minimum cetane number of 51.
Fatty-acid methyl ester (FAME), more widely known as biodiesel, is obtained from vegetable oil or animal fats (biolipids) which have been transesterified with methanol. It can be produced from many types of oils, the most common being rapeseed oil (rapeseed methyl ester, RME) in Europe and soybean oil (soy methyl ester, SME) in the USA.
FAME has a lower energy content than diesel due to its oxygen content, and as a result, performance and fuel consumption can be affected. Biodiesel produces higher levels of NOx emissions, possibly even exceeding the legal limit. FAME also has lower oxidation stability than diesel, and it offers favorable conditions for bacterial growth, so applications which have a low fuel turnover should not use FAME. The loss in power when using pure biodiesel is 5 to 7%.
Diesel and Biodiesel both contain small but problematic quantities of water when processed. In addition, water that is residual to processing can also result from storage tank condensation. Water reduces the heat of fuel combustion, causing smoke, harder starting, and reduced power. Water causes corrosion of fuel system components (pumps, fuel lines, etc.) Microbes in water cause the paper-element filters in the system to rot and fail, causing failure of the fuel pump due to ingestion of large particles. Water freezes to form ice crystals that provide sites for nucleation, accelerating gelling of the fuel.
The AWE Solution
Diesel fuel treated with our technology results in a 10 – 20% increase in fuel economy depending on the quality of the fuel to begin with and emissions are significantly reduced from diesel. The treated diesel is upgraded into a lighter, cleaner and more energetic fuel that burns completely.
The AWE technology relies on these fundamental steps:
• Cavitation excites fuel at a molecular level.
• Special catalysts lock-in permanent chemical change
• Water is knocked out from the treatment process.
Together, these processes perform a mild, cold hydro-cracking of the diesel fuel.
AWE uses hydrodynamic cavitation to induce chemical changes in the properties of fuel passing through the device. Fluid pumped through the reactor creates areas of low pressure, forming tiny-sized or 'nano' bubbles that grow and then collapse at critical size very rapidly (10-6 seconds. Bubble collapse releases extreme, but localized shock waves, heat and pressure (~ 5000K and ~1000 Atm) strong enough to break covalent bonds. Cavitation of the diesel breaks the carbon chain to the left (BS&W, bio-solids and paraffin).
The end result is an upgrade of diesel or biodiesel into a lighter, cleaner and more energetic fuel as can be seen in a shift to the left in a gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer (GC/MS).
Numerous field tests have proven that treated fuel results in increased mileage or fuel savings. The dirtier the fuel - the better the increase in efficiency.