Water for thermoelectric power is used in generating electricity with steam-driven turbine generators. Thermoelectric power water withdrawals were compiled by cooling-system type. Once-through cooling systems circulate water through heat exchangers and then return the water to the source. Recirculation cooling systems circulate water through heat exchangers, then cool the water using ponds or towers, and then the water is recirculated. Water withdrawals for a recirculation system are used to replace water lost to evaporation, blowdown, drift, and leakage.
According the USGA thermoelectric-power water withdrawals for 2010 were 161,000 Million gallons a day or 180,000 thousand acre-ft/yr. Surface water was the source for over 99 percent of total thermoelectric-power withdrawals, and 73 percent of those surface-water withdrawals were from freshwater sources.
Benefits of AWE's Ionizer Process for Cooling Water Treatment
* Water Conservation
- Increasing Cycles of Concentration
- Supplying Chemical-Free Blowdown Reuse
Cycles of concentration refers to the number of times water can be recirculated through a system before reaching a mineral concentration requiring blowdown. AWE's Ionizer process differs from traditional chemical treatment by physically removing scale-forming minerals from the water. By removing scale, cooling water can be circulated more often than with traditional chemistry.
ON AVERAGE AWE CUSTOMERS SHOULD SEE A 20% REDUCTION IN THEIR
MAKEUP WATER CONSUMPTION, AND BLOWDOWN SAVINGS OF 50%
* Energy Efficiency
The harmful effects of scale and biofouling on cooling systems are well documented. A very small amount of fouling dramatically decreases efficiency, and significantly increases operating costs. Properly controlling scale, dirt, debris, and microbiological contamination is key to maximize energy efficiency.
Effective chemical treatment is complex, requiring constant attention to balance chemical selection and dosage with ever-changing makeup water and cooling system load. While chemical treatment can be effective when properly managed, too often chemical providers are unable to adjust their treatment program to effectively respond to these dynamic conditions.
The result: systems that are either chemically overtreated (reducing equipment life) or scaled and fouled (increasing energy consumption and maintenance cost).
* Environmental Impact
AWE'S IONIZER PROVIDES EXCELLENT WATER TREATMENT WITHOUT THE NEED FOR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS
- Traditional chemical water treatment programs include film-forming corrosion inhibitors, dispersants to prevent calcite or hard scale from forming on heat transfer surfaces, and biocides used to eradicate microbiological organisms. Besides the health & safety risk inherent with handling hazardous materials, the manufacturing, shipment and disposal of these chemicals has a significant environmental cost.
- Chemically treated blowdown is required to be disposed of in sanitary sewer systems and processed by our local water treatment plants. However, the large quantities of biocides and other chemicals can harm the bacteria used in many waste water treatment facilities.
AWE's Ionizer process eliminates the need for the wasteful and potentially dangerous chemical supply chain while freeing up significant capacity in our wastewater treatment facilities. It's a win-win-win for our customer's pocketbooks, our communities and the environment.