Blue-Green algae costs municipal water systems millions of dollars to treat in the United States alone. Algae left 500,000 Ohio and Michigan residents without drinking water for several days in early August, 2014. Lead in Flint, Michigan has left now left 100,000 with water. Arsenic is a major problem in the U.S and 70 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to water contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in excess of WHO guidelines. Nearly 2 million people in California's Central Valley and the U.S. Midwest live within one-half mile of groundwater containing uranium that is over the health limits.
Pathogenic bacteria can cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, cholera, foodborne ill- ness, leprosy and tuberculosis and are a major cause of human death. They can also contribute to other globally important diseases, such as pneumonia. Pharmaceutical residues are now acknowledged as an emerging environmental problem. Certain pharmaceuticals like clofibric acid, carbamazepine and diclofenac are resistant to elimination by conventional biological wastewater treatment and are therefore more likely to pollute the environment.
Industrial withdrawals provide water for such purposes as fabricating, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product; incorporating water into a product; or for sanitation needs within the manufacturing facility. Some industries that use large amounts of water produce such commodities as food, paper, chemicals, refined petroleum, or primary metals.
The AWE Solution
Hydrodynamic cavitation has the potential to become the energy efficient technique that can currently reduce the necessary use of expensive chemicals for enhanced water treatment process, which on the other hand also pose additional concerns when deposited into the environment. Cavitation as a physical phenomena does not introduce any new chemicals to water and thus does not affect the environment after water is released into environment.
Our technology is in sharp contrast to chemical treatments like chlorine concentrations that degrade over time, requiring constant additions. And for a biological cell to die, the cell must ingest the chemical. This may often take up to 30 minutes, if and when, the cell comes in contact with a chlorine molecule, and therefore is not always 100 percent effective.
On the other hand, our technology causes a combination of physical changes to take place in the water that disrupt the cell membranes of biological matter, destroying the cell. Every cell pumped through the system is subjected to extremely high pressure, and high localized temperatures. The pressure of the fluid inside the cell wall cannot withstand the pressure differential and the cell wall ruptures. In addition, the creation of OH radicals and hydrogen peroxide also kills additional bacteria and cell life. Studies have also indicated that hydrodynamic cavitation has the potential to efficiently remove pharmaceuticals bio-recalcitrant carbamazepine and diclofenac.
The Ionizer uses hydrodynamic cavitation to induce chemical changes in the properties of fluids passing through the device.
- Fluid pumped through the device creates areas of low pressure, forming tiny-sized or 'nano' bubbles that grow and then collapse at critical size very rapidly (10-6 seconds)
- Bubble collapse releases extreme, but localized shock waves, heat and pressure (~ 5000K and ~1000 Atm) strong enough to break covalent bonds.
- The resulting altered fluids have many beneficial properties in water treatment, including the killing of bacteria, oxidizes most suspended and some dissolved solids.
- Hydrodynamic cavitation causes water molecules to dissociate
H20 dissociates to form H+ and an OH- hydroxyl radicals (strongest oxidizing agent known) and some OH- radicals combine to form H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide)
As proven by University of Texas
|Dissolved O2 + electron (e) -> O2-||superoxide|
|H+ + O2- + electron (e) -> OOH-||hydroperoxyl radical|
|H+ + OOH- -> H2O2||hydrogen peroxide|
|OOH- + electron (e) -> OH-||hydroxyl radical|
|OH- + electron (e) ->H2O||water|
The economical Ionizer is scalable to any size costing a fraction of expensive treatments like chemicals for use in many applications. The 6" Ionizer shown above can treat 630,000 gallons per day, a 36" Ionizer could treat 10,000,000 gallons per day.