Rising temperatures reduce levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) and increase metabolic rates of fish, leading to increases in fish deaths, declines in production or increases in feed requirements for the aquaculture industry. The increasing risk and spread of disease is exposing the Industry to major economic losses from extreme weather events from both red tides and blue-green algae. On March 1, 2016 - 23 million Salmon were killed in a massive ocean algae bloom in Chile.
Dissolved oxygen is the most important and critical parameter in aquaculture. This is due to fact that fish aerobic metabolism requires dissolved oxygen. During respiration fish, like other animals, take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide.
However, oxygen deficiency causes asphyxiation and fish will die, depending on the oxygen requirements of the species and to a lesser extent on their rate of adaptation. Fish exposed to oxygen deficient water do not take food, leading to a reduction in growth. Reproduction is inhibited, and both fertilization success and larval survival are compromised.
Warmer weather and fertilizer runoff has enabled cyanobacteria to grow in northern waters previously too cold for their survival. Species first found in southern Europe in the 1930s now form blooms in northern Germany. Others have appeared in places as far north as Montana and throughout Canada.
Fish and other aquatic animals and plants stand little chance against cyanobacteria. The algae crowds the surface water, shading out plants -- fish food -- below. Fish generally avoid cyanobacteria, so they're left without food. And when the algae die they sink to the bottom where their decomposition can lead to extensive depletion of oxygen.
Blooms of one kind of "red tide" algae—which create ocean dead zones—may be more frequent as the world warms, especially in North America. Alexandrium catenella algae species produces a poison that can accumulate in seafood and subject humans to everything from vomiting to muscle paralysis to, in rare cases, death. Harmful blood-red algae are increasingly thriving in European lakes as the Earth warms, a new study finds. Research on Lake Zurich in Switzerland reveals that Burgundy blood algae, a toxic cyanobacteria species, has become more dense in the last 40 years as warm winters prevent seasonal die-off.
Blue-Green algae has been linked to digestive, neurological and skin diseases and fatal liver disease in humans. It costs municipal water systems many millions of dollars to treat in the United States alone. And though it's more prevalent in developing countries, it grows on key bodies of water across the world, including Lake Victoria in Africa, the Baltic Sea, Lake Erie and bays of the Great Lakes, Florida's Lake Okeechobee and in the main reservoir for Raleigh, N.C.
Lake Erie has become increasingly susceptible to large blooms of toxin-producing cyanobacteria since 2002. Detection of the toxin microcystin left nearly half a million Ohio and Michigan residents without drinking water for several days in early August, 2014.
The AWE Solution - Oxygenated Water
Numerous studies have proven that increased dissolved oxygen (DO) speeds the growth of healthy fish.
The increase in mean weight of individual Tilapia fish during the course of the growth tests for the high, medium and low levels of DO is shown below. The fastest rate of growth was at high DO and the slowest growth in the low DO.
The Ionizer uses hydrodynamic cavitation to induce chemical changes in the properties of fluids passing through the device
Fluid pumped through the device creates areas of low pressure, forming tiny-sized or 'nano' bubbles that grow and then collapse at critical size very rapidly (10-6 seconds)
Bubble collapse releases extreme, but localized shock waves, heat and pressure (~ 5000K and ~1000 Atm) strong enough to break covalent bonds.
The resulting altered fluids have many beneficial properties in water treatment, including the killing of bacteria, oxidizes most suspended and some dissolved solids.
Hydrodynamic cavitation causes water molecules to dissociate
H20 dissociates to form H+ and an OH- hydroxyl radicals (strongest oxidizing agent known) and some OH- radicals combine to form H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide)
As proven by University of Texas
|Dissolved O2 + electron (e) -> O2-||superoxide|
|H+ + O2- + electron (e) -> OOH-||hydroperoxyl radical|
|H+ + OOH- -> H2O2||hydrogen peroxide|
|OOH- + electron (e) -> OH-||hydroxyl radical|
|OH- + electron (e) ->H2O||water|
Water is oxygenated during the process.
The Ionizer is a passive device that is easy to install, requires no external power, minimal/no maintenance or servicing and works with minimal pressure.
The economical Ionizer is scalable to any size costing a fraction of expensive treatments like chemicals for use in many applications. The 6" Ionizer shown below can treat 630,000 gallons per day, a 36" Ionizer could treat 10,000,000 gallons per day.
The AWE Ionizer could be a game changer in aquaculture industry. Using Ionized Water alone has proved to kill algae and oxygenate water. We are looking for potential Joint Venture Partners to explore various opportunities in the Industry.